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Thursday, June 9, 2011

Installing and Configuring NTP on an ESX host

Installing and Configuring NTP on an ESX host

Details

This article provides steps to install and configure NTP on an ESX 2.x and 3.0.x host.
 
Note: For ESX 3.5 and above, NTP can be configured from vSphere Client and no longer requires manual configuration. For more information, consult the documentation for your version of ESX.

Warning: The example server names are subject to change without notice. Ensure that all NTP servers are accessible at time of implementation, and are checked on a frequent basis. Use resolution names and avoid the use of hard coded addresses. Upon initial design make certain that you plan for sufficient redundancy on your NTP pool as well.

Solution

Beginning with ESX Server 2.0.1, NTP is installed by default during the installation of ESX.
 
Note: For ESX Server 2.0.0, see the instructions later in this article to install and configure NTP.

Configuring NTP on ESX 2.0.1 and Later

To configure NTP on the service console, you must:
  1. Edit the following configuration files.
    • /etc/ntp.conf. For more information, see Editing /etc/ntp.conf.
    • /etc/ntp/step-tickers. For more information, see Editing /etc/ntp/step-tickers.
  2. For ESX Server 3.0 only, run the following command:

    Note: This command opens the appropriate ports and enables the NTP daemon to talk with the external server.

    [root@esxhost]# esxcfg-firewall --enableService ntpClient
  3. Restart ntpd.

Editing /etc/ntp.conf

Specify a pool of NTP servers to which your ESX system will sync. For more information about using NTP server pools, see http://www.pool.ntp.org/use.html.
  1. Log on to the service console as the root user.
  2. You are going to replace the content of /etc/ntp.conf, so make a backup copy of this file with the command:
    cp /etc/ntp.conf /etc/ntp.conf.bk

  3. Edit the contents of the default /etc/ntp.conf (which the ESX installation creates for you), so the file looks like this:
    restrict 127.0.0.1
    restrict default kod nomodify notrap
    server 0.vmware.pool.ntp.org
    server 1.vmware.pool.ntp.org
    server 2.vmware.pool.ntp.org
    driftfile /var/lib/ntp/drift

    Note: ESX 3.0.2 and older versions use
    /etc/ntp/drift as the location for the driftfile.
  • restrict – The first restrict is required because ntpd needs to resolve hostname addresses via the loopback network. If this entry does not exist, the system log ( /var/log/messages) will show something like this:
    ntpd_initres: ntpd returns a permission denied error
    For systems directly connected to the Internet, the second restrict line provides a basic level of protection from general UDP spoofing of NTP.
  • kod – Sends a KoD packet when an access violation occurs.
  • nomodify – Denies ntpq and ntpdc queries that attempt to modify the run-time configuration of the server. Queries that return information are permitted.
  • notrap – Declines to provide mode 6 control message trap service to matching hosts. The trap service is a subsystem of the ntpdq control message protocol, which is intended for use by remote event logging programs.
For better protection, you may want to add noquery, which prevents remote queries, and nopeer, which prevents a host from trying to peer with your server and to allow a rogue server to control the clock.
Refer to http://www.eecis.udel.edu/~mills/ntp/html/accopt.html for a full description of these access control commands.
The 0, 1, and 2.vmware.pool.ntp.org names point to a random set of servers that change every hour.
The driftfile line indicates the name of the file where the value for the system's clock drift (frequency error) is stored. For a more complete definition of driftfile, see http://www.eecis.udel.edu/~mills/ntp/html/notes.html.

Editing /etc/ntp/step-tickers

Perform the following steps as the root user on the service console.
  1. Make a backup copy of your /etc/ntp/step-tickers file with the command:
    cp /etc/ntp/step-tickers /etc/ntp/step-tickers.bk
  2. Edit /etc/ntp/step-tickers so that the file looks like the following example:
    0.vmware.pool.ntp.org
    1.vmware.pool.ntp.org
    2.vmware.pool.ntp.org

ESX 3.0 Only: Enabling NTP Client for Firewall

As noted earlier in this article, remember to run the following command to open the appropriate ports and enable the NTP daemon to talk with the external server:
[root@esxhost]# esxcfg-firewall --enableService ntpClient

Restarting and Monitoring the NTP Service

Perform these steps as root on the service console.
  1. After you have edited the /etc/ntp.conf and /etc/ntp/step-tickers, restart the NTP service.
    • To restart the service now, run the command:

      service ntpd restart
    • To enable the NTP daemon to autostart when the server is rebooted, run the command:

      chkconfig --level 345 ntpd on
  2. Set the local hardware clock to the NTP synchronized local system time. Run the command:

    hwclock --systohc

    As ntpd successfully polls NTP servers, the kernel automatically sets the hardware clock to the system clock time periodically.
  3. Monitor the NTP service as desired:
    • To see the offset (in seconds) between the local clock and the source clock, run:
      ntpdate -q time_server_name_or_ip_address
      If the correction resulting from synchronizing the local clock with the time server is large enough, it could affect the operating systems or applications running in virtual machines when they synchronize their clocks with the ESX Server system on which they are running.
    • To watch the status of the ntpd process, run:
      watch "ntpq -p"
      Press Ctrl-c to stop watching the process.

      Note the information in the following columns:
      • The character in the first column indicates the quality of the source.
      • The asterisk ( * ) indicates the source is the current reference.
      • remote lists the IP address or host name of the source.
      • when indicates how many seconds have passed since the source was polled.
      • poll indicates the polling interval. This value increases depending on the accuracy of the local clock.
      • reach is an octal number that indicates reachability of the source. A value of 377 indicates the source has answered the last eight consecutive polls.
      • offset is the time difference between the source and the local clock in milliseconds.

      Note: If ntpq -p returns ntpq: read: Connection refused, check /var/log/messages for a more detailed error message.
Additional documentation for NTP is available at http://support.ntp.org/bin/view/Main/DocumentationIndex. 

ESX Server 2.0.0

To install and configure NTP on the console operating system (service console):
  1. Log on to the console as the root user.
  2. Mount the ESX Server CD on the console:

    mount /mnt/cdrom
  3. Change to the /mnt/cdrom/RedHat/RPMS directory.
  4. Install the NTP package:

    rpm -Uhv ntp-*.i386.rpm
  5. Change to the /etc directory.
  6. Locate the file ntp.conf (after the rpm installation) in the /etc directory (you changed into this directory in step 5). Edit this file using:

    vi ntp.conf
  7. Find the the line that reads:
    server 127.127.1.0 # local clock
    Change it to:
    server 192.6.38.127 # This is an example only
  8. Save the file.
  9. Create a file named step-tickers in the /etc/ntp directory. In this file, list the host name of your reference time server.
  10. To enable the ntp daemon to autostart when the server is rebooted, run:

    chkconfig ntpd on
  11. To start it now without rebooting, run:
    /etc/rc.d/init.d/ntpd start
    The time drift corrects after a while.
  12. Wait a few seconds (up to a minute), then run:
    ntpq -p
    This lists the current status.
  13. Use umount to unmount the ESX Server CD:

    umount /mnt/cdrom
These examples use a source server IP address obtained from a list of open access NTP servers. You may select one that suits you from http://support.ntp.org/bin/view/Servers/WebHome.

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